Powernet’s Cloud Coordinator will optimize net load for a given area and for each Home Hub within the area to minimize total cost or achieve coordination goals such as ramp following or regulation while maintaining reliable service. In addition to communicating with homes, the cloud-based platform will use signals from electric utilities and grid operators—regulation reserves, ramp rates, market prices, etc.—and grid data, such as voltage, frequency, and phase at distribution and transmission levels.
The optimization component of the Cloud Coordinator solves a dynamic—or multi-period economic optimization. The optimization is resolved every 30 minutes to a few hours using a rolling horizon control, with the updated information collected from the homes. When the grid operator requests regulation or ramp following, the optimization includes an additional term in the objective function penalizing deviations from regulation or ramp signals. The goal of the cloud coordinator is to identify feasible trajectories that respect global network constraints.
The Cloud Coordinator computes the global power balancing trajectory for the whole Powernet system. A new net load sent by the coordinator or changes within a specific home introduced by its residents triggers the optimization at the Home Hub. The home hub optimization happens at a higher time resolution and in real-time. It does not require knowledge of the network. This two-level optimization preserves the home's privacy, because only net load curves and available storage are shared with the Cloud Coordinator.
When tracking regulation signals from the grid operator, the Cloud Coordinator’s optimization will incorporate deviation penalties and forecasted demand, resulting in a modified control of a Home Hub’s net loads and storage. Market-based payments incentivize the consumer to share for these purposes.